Solitude at the Wales Games Development Show 2014

It’s been a week since we exhibited our Solitude tech demo, which has given us a bit of time to unwind after 5 weeks of solid crunch. In that time we went from pretty much nothing, to a 2 player cooperative scenario that not only played well, but was also quite polished. Still, we had no idea what to expect until we got there.

Solitude Booth at Wales Games Development Show 2014

We managed to get the our booth set up in pretty good time but then ran into a few networking issues. Since our tech demo is multiplayer and we know from previous experience that the provided wifi and Internet at these venues cannot be trusted, we opted to bring our own networking gear. After testing pretty much everything at home before we arrived, one of the network cables still resulted in being faulty, which meant one of the connections had to rely on own mini wifi network. This worked fine for the most part, but we suffered from minor latencies in the afternoon for some reason. That was the first issue we ran into, the second was that after we got the network up and running, the Commander’s machine (left) was refusing to connect to the server. After assuming that firewalls were to blame and disabling them everywhere, it wasn’t until a fresh pair of eyes looked over the client config and spotted an issue with the second octet of the IP address, which had been entered incorrectly and completely blind-sighted from then on. Whoops! After this was corrected, we had both machines connected to the server and ready to play one minute after the doors opened.

From here on out, things just got better and better. We could not believe how much fun people were having. One of the key gameplay requirements is communication, so we had a voice chat system running with headsets for people to communicate in-game. Players were getting really into it and being very vocal about it, and this was drawing in an even bigger crowd. Apologies should go out to the talkers on stage. When the room was quiet for talkers, occasionally there’d be a “GO LEFT! NO, YOUR OTHER LEFT!” emanating from our booth. Whoops. For the entire day we pretty much had people playing the tech demo with a crowd spectating behind, we even got the Wales Interactive directors into the driving seats.

Wales Interactive plays Solitude

Even though the booth was really busy most of the day, we managed to get out and about a couple times to check out what the rest of the show had to offer. This would not have been possible if we didn’t have our additional helpers, thank you Chris, Andy & Ben! A few of our personal favourites were Infinity Runner by Wales Interactive, really polished game with good use of the Oculus Rift and, surprisingly enough, does not come with the nauseating side-effect that most VR games seem to induce! Friendship Club by Force of Habit, a great little top down battle arena game that supports up to 4 players via local multiplayer. And Sim Raiders by the single developer (the entire game, down to the music and art), Matt Stockham, a fully procedurally generated RPG dungeon crawler that’s different every time you play.

All in all, the show was absolutely brilliant for us. Solitude got way more attention and positive feedback than we could have ever hoped for. We were definitely one of the more active booths at the show so it’s incredibly encouraging. A big thank you to everyone who came to the show and made the day awesome, both exhibitors and visitors alike. An even bigger thanks to everyone who came over and tried out the Solitude tech demo, we had a lot of fun and a lot of laughs throughout the day. If you didn’t get a chance to come over to our booth or didn’t attend WGDS2014 but are still interested in the tech demo, we’ll be releasing a video based on the tech demo gameplay soon to both this site and the Solitude site.

Wales Games Development Show 2014

Hey everyone!

Unfortunately there’s no development post this week as we’ve not been able to spare the time. However, here’s a brief update on what we’ve been up to and what our plans are for the near future.

Last week we were in Swansea doing a talk about how we got into independent game development, as well as our trials and tribulations, for the game dev graduates over there. We think it went down pretty well and got chatting to quite a few people afterwards. David Alden from Rockstar North (Swansea Met. alumni) also gave a really inciteful talk on how he got into the AAA game development industry. All in all, it was a great evening and thanks to everyone who attended.

We’re in Cardiff this coming week, on the 26th June, for the game dev social / TIGA event. Both of us will be doing a small talk there on what we’ve been up to recently. Up until now, we’ve been pretty quiet about it, but if all goes according to plan, we’ll be talking about our latest game.

Wales Games Development Show 2014 LogoThis is the reason why we’ve not had any time to work on development posts. We are exhibiting at the Wales Games Development Show (as usual) and we’ve been pushing ourselves hard to get a tech demo ready for it. We had some big ambitions, but the results are already looking really good and we’re very excited! So, if you’re interested in what we’ve been up to, you should definitely come along and say hi!

Tickets for WGDS2014 are around £6 and are available here.

Hope to see you soon!

The IOs of Game Netcode #2 – Threading and Concurrency

This is part of a series of posts revolving around game netcode development, the introduction and links to the other posts can be found here.

 

In the last post of The IOs of Game Netcode (found here), I talked about a few general rules of thumb I usually follow when starting a new netcode framework. Over the next few posts I’m going to go a little deeper into the technical options available to us as netcode developers and what routes I take based on different scenarios. The first topic I’m going to start with is threading, and the resulting issue – concurrency. This post is quite long so I’ve only addressed the issues the developer should keep in mind while working with threads. The solutions to these issues will be covered in the next post 🙂

 

Threading

As any netcode developer will know, the first hurdle you will hit when writing netcode or working with sockets is the threading issue. Normally, you can only execute a single piece of program code at a time. Threading allows you to execute multiple pieces program code simultaneously by running it on different threads. By default, reading and writing via sockets will block current execution of program code until it is complete. This isn’t necessarily an issue with writing to a socket unless you are writing faster than the hardware can handle (network card or modem), but if you’re reading, the operation will block until there is data to be read. One of the ways around this is to check the number of available bytes to be read before reading and if there are bytes available, only read that much. However, even with using this method, the actual reading and writing of bytes will block, even if it’s just a moment, and you don’t want this in your main game or render loop. Another way around this is to use asynchronous read and write operations. These run in their own threads automatically (provided by the socket library you are using) and pass the data back via a callback when complete. They have their uses, such as web services, but for real-time game netcode they can begin to cause problems as you cannot be sure of the order of transmission and you start to encroach of race condition territory.

So, in order to effectively read and write across a network with sockets, without causing the main program to hang while it is doing so, you’ll need at least one additional thread to perform the socket operations on. The reason I say at least one additional thread is because when developing your game client, you only really need a single socket to connect to your server. However, for the server, you’ll need a thread for every connecting client to handle each of the socket operations. For those of you who are now thinking “Why not use non-blocking sockets?”, I’m aware of this and it will be covered in a future post, but for the time being I’m focusing on the standard variety of sockets as there’s a lot more to consider with using non-blocking sockets 🙂

Anyway, as soon as you start working with multiple threads, it opens up a whole new bag of worms in the form of concurrent modifications.

 

Concurrency

Concurrent modifications are when you are reading a value of a variable in one thread, while it is being modified in another. Another example is looping over a collection while different thread is adding or removing an element from the collection. Most languages languages allow this type of access with unpredictable results. This is due to two main reasons.

 

Race Conditions

The first is the race condition, you just don’t know what thread is going to access the variable first. There are three scenarios for a race condition:

  • Read & Read – Both threads want to read the value of a variable. It is unknown which thread reads the variable first but it doesn’t matter as it does not change. Both threads read the same value.

  • Read & Write – One thread reads the variable, while the other writes to it. The final value of the variable will always be what is written, but the value read by the reading thread may be that of the variable before the write, or after. This can lead to the aforementioned unpredictable behaviour and potential crashes.

  • Write & Write – Both threads want to write. No read operations are carried out, but that does not eliminate an unpredictable value being read later. This is because the final value of the variable is unknown. It is the value of whichever thread wrote to the variable last.

The above scenarios are very specific and only show two threads accessing a single variable. However, in reality, these threads would be doing more than just reading and writing to a variable. For example, we have a shared (global or static) float variable called currentSpeed accessed by both threads:

Thread 1 – Anti speed-hacking protection

currentSpeed = player.getVelocity().getMagnitude();
if (currentSpeed > MAX_PLAYER_SPEED) {
    player.disconnect();
}

Thread 2 – Find the fastest moving entity

Entity fastestEntity = null;
currentSpeed = 0;
for (Entity entity : entities) {
    if (entity.getVelocity().getMagnitude() > currentSpeed) {
        currentSpeed = entity.getVelocity().getMagnitude();
        fastestEntity = entity;
    }
}
return fastestEntity;

For the record, you should never share a variable between two different tasks like this, but if you did this is how it might play out. For this example we are going to assume that the player is moving at a speed of 4 and there is one other entity in the world moving at a speed of 10:

// Start with Thread 2
Entity fastestEntity = null;
currentSpeed = 0;
for (Entity entity : entities) {
    if (entity.getVelocity().getMagnitude() > currentSpeed) {
// Switch to Thread 1
currentSpeed = player.getVelocity().getMagnitude();
// Switch to Thread 2
        currentSpeed = entity.getVelocity().getMagnitude();
        fastestEntity = entity;
    }
}
// Switch to Thread 1
if (currentSpeed > MAX_PLAYER_SPEED) {
    player.disconnect();
}

In this scenario, the first time currentSpeed is assigned is after the first switch, where it gets set to 4. Before it can test the value of currentSpeed, the process switches to thread 2, where currentSpeed is set to the value of the fastest moving entity’s speed, which 10. Then the process switches back to thread 1 to perform the test. Oh look, the player is moving at a speed of 10, they must be speed-hacking, better disconnect them!

This occurs because the threads can switch at any point in during normal processing and is always something you need to keep in mind while working with multiple threads. There are mechanisms to get around these issues, but first…

 

Non-Atomic Operations

The second reason concurrent access can cause unpredictable results is due to non-atomic load and store operations. This is a bit more low level and might be harder to grasp for those who aren’t familiar with CPU architecture. There are a couple of definitions when it comes to the atomicity of an operation. It can refer to a single instruction or an operation of multiple instructions. Essentially, an operation is considered atomic if it completes in a single step relative to other threads. Therefore, a non-atomic operation can also result in a race condition as described above, but for the purposes of this section, we’ll be focusing on single instructions.

When you want to run your game (or program), you need to compile it into machine code first. Every developer knows this. During the compilation process, the compiler reads our source code and optimises it internally before outputting machine code, therefore the machine code doesn’t directly reflect the logic that we’ve defined. Most developers know this. One of the optimisations compilers do is to maximise CPU register usage. General purpose CPU registers typically have a size equal to the bit-architecture of the system. Modern day systems are 64 bit architecture and have 64 bit general purpose CPU registers. If you have two 32 bit integers that have some operation performed on them, the compiler will attempt to optimise the machine code to load them both into the same 64 bit register to perform the operation more efficiently. Some developers know this.

Now, the problem lies in the scenario where you attempt to perform an operation on a data type that has a larger bit requirement than the CPU register can handle, or the register already has some active data in it. The data ends up being split into multiple machine code instructions – and this is what causes the problem. Can you remember when I mentioned that threads can switch at any point in normal processing? Well, this happens at the machine code instruction level. So, a simple variable assignment such as:

long timestamp = 1L;

Can be split into two machine code instructions, with a thread switch right in the middle.

Not many developers know this.

This is the very essence of non-atomic operations. If processing switches to another thread during a multi-instruction load or store, the race condition is the least of your worries. Depending on your operation, you’ll either end up with a torn-read or a torn-write. One thread attempts to write a 64 bit integer to a variable but only gets as far as the first 32 bit store instruction, another thread reads the full 64 bit contents of the variable, then the first thread writes the second 32 bit store instruction. What the second thread ends up reading is one-half correct data, one-half bad data and one-whole big problem.

 

Some of you may now be thinking “Holy crap, threads are dangerous, how the hell do programs even function without exploding into a flaming ball of random corruption!?” Well, the answer is yes, they are dangerous, but there are also certain principles you can abide by and mechanisms you can use that prevent this pseudo-random behaviour. However, these topics will be addressed in the next post 😉

Like before, if you have any questions about this post or just want to chat netcode, please comment below or fire me a tweet at @Jargon64.

Thanks for reading! 🙂

The IOs of Game Netcode #1 – A Few Rules of Thumb

This is part of a series of posts revolving around game netcode development, the introduction and links to the other posts can be found here.

 

First of all, welcome to the series! 🙂

This first instalment of The IOs of Game Netcode will cover a few rules that I’ve come to follow whenever I approach a new netcode project. Now, as I’ve been writing this I’ve come to realise that because netcode is mainly backend code, there isn’t going to be a whole lot to look at except large walls of text. I’m afraid I can’t do much about that. Hopefully, you find the posts interesting enough to persevere 🙂 So, without further ado, here are my rules of thumb…

 

Text is BAD

What I’m referring to here is text-based netcode serialisation is bad and you shouldn’t do it. If you do it, then you are a bad person and should feel bad. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule. The first being web services, which in all fairness is a pretty big exception. Turn-based games can get away with it as well. Also, you may not have a choice if you’re developing a mobile game due to unreliable Internet connections and are forced down the RESTful web-service route here too. I’ve played a few real-time multiplayer mobile games and they’re alright, if you’re on wifi, otherwise it’s a terrible experience.

So, if you don’t fall into one of the above exceptions, you’re going to want to go with object serialisation at least otherwise you’re going to get a lot of overhead on parsing your netcode into usable formats. Now, for a lot of you this is pretty obvious and you may be asking yourself “Why would any sane person try and implement a real-time game’s netcode with text-based serialisation?” Well, for some of the more inexperienced developers out there, it may seem like a good idea to use a flexible text format like XML or JSON for your netcode because “everything can read it” and “other people can write clients to consume it like a web service”. Just save yourself the headache and stop yourself now.

If you haven’t guessed, yes, this is something I chose to do while developing Root Access. This was a long time ago now and what roped me in was the flexibility, you don’t need to deserialise everything you receive and different clients can select only what they need, but this was an inexperienced train of thought. Of course you want to deserialise everything, if you don’t you clearly don’t have efficient netcode. Even though it did work, and pretty well at first, it got progressively slower the more data we shoved through it. Eventually, I went back and recoded all of the netcode to use Java’s object serialisation framework, which took a long time and was a massive headache. So save yourself the trouble and don’t do it! 🙂

 

Everything is Multiplayer

It is my firm belief, that if you are making a game with multiplayer, you should bite the bullet and make your singleplayer multiplayer. What I mean by this is your singleplayer is actually a private multiplayer session consisting of one player using the system’s local loopback interface. Of course, this basically means you need to START with your netcode framework before you can make any kind of progress. Yes, this does slow down the initial project start quite considerably and also makes developing the singleplayer aspect of the game a bit slower and require more effort, but I believe the benefits are definitely worth it.

For starters, you’ll finish your game faster. If your singleplayer and multiplayer modes use exactly the same code, then you’re killing two birds with one stone. All you have to do is flip a switch and you go from singleplayer to multiplayer and vice versa. Writing two separate systems to manage singleplayer and multiplayer will just be a maintenance nightmare down the road. There shouldn’t be any latency issues running singleplayer through the loopback interface. If you are experiencing any kind of noticeable delay while playing a local singleplayer, this just points out that there may be an issue with your netcode design / implementation, forcing you to fix it and resulting in a better multiplayer experience as well! 🙂

Lastly, and this is the big one, you’ll avoid the gargantuan headache that is retrofitting multiplayer into your game. If you focus on singleplayer only to get your game out as soon as possible, with the idea of multiplayer coming much later on, you’re in for a world of hurt. I’ve seen so many game developers do this as well, and it basically appears that they’ve hit a brick wall in terms of progress because they are so busy behind the scenes refactoring, debugging and generally rewriting a huge portion of their game. I was actually impressed when the guys at Mojang managed to retrofit Minecraft’s singleplayer into a multiplayer system to support LAN play, but it required huge changes including the way their singleplayer stored its map and player data. So, if you’re planning multiplayer at ANY point during a game’s development, DO IT FIRST! You’ll thank me later 😉

 

Stand Alone, Together

Now this one may not be as obvious and a lot of people may actually disagree, but I think it’s something that can help a game’s design, development and maintainability. When writing your multiplayer framework for your game, separate the game client and server into separate projects, and also build them as separate binaries. It may be tempting to implement your multiplayer server into your game client as it’s easier to work in a single project, especially if the game doesn’t really require a dedicated server. Do it anyway. The reason I say this is because you’re going to end up with a lot of duplication, particularly in regards to the game data (which is understandable due to the client and server’s own knowledge of things). If you’re not careful you’ll start cross-referencing data without going through the netcode properly and before you know it, your multiplayer isn’t truly multiplayer and it’ll be a development and maintenance nightmare.

If you do separate your client and server into separate projects, but plan to compile and distribute together as one application, then I don’t really see a problem with this. I just prefer to go all the way and build as two separate applications, then you have a dedicated server from the beginning. Then for locally hosted games, you just get the game client to launch the server in the background, telling the server that the player is the host / has admin privileges by providing a player’s token or account ID to the server process. This also works for singleplayer games as mentioned in the Everything is Multiplayer section raised above, just you keep the game private, skip the game lobby screen and launch straight into the game.

What I have suggested so far makes the assumption that your client and server are written in the same language. If they’re not, then you’ll probably never encounter these issues, but there is also an advantage of working in a single language and that is shared projects. Back in the day when we were very much Java, Java, Java we usually started a new game with the same triad of projects. Client, server and shared. The client and server were dependent on the shared project, which housed all common functionality between the client and the server. It included the netcode framework, netcode commands and data structure classes. This removed a whole tonne of duplication in the projects and is something that worked very well for us while we worked in a single language. It’s a lot harder to do when you work in Unity and C++ :). Anyway, since those days, I’ve refined my thinking a bit and come to the conclusion that sharing the netcode framework and potentially the data structure classes is potentially a bad idea, and that only the netcode commands should be shared.

If you share your netcode framework you have to start writing in special cases depending on whether the process using the framework is the server or the client, as well as identifying the source of a netcode command (whether it is the server or a client and how to handle it). I actually saw someone tweet a code snippet that made reference to this exact check recently and, to be honest, I don’t think it’s needed. Of course, there’s always an exception to the rule. If you’re developing a peer-to-peer model, then you may not have a choice, depending on how your client gets its peer list. Anyway, the reason I mention that you shouldn’t be sharing a data model either is because your client should never know everything your server knows. The client should only know portion of your server’s game data, only what is relevant to it. Also, you should only be sending client required data for each entity class. Your server versions of the entity classes will contain a lot more and some of it may be sensitive. Your server’s game data classes will also contain a tonne of functionality regarding how the entity behaves, that the client should never need. If it does, then your design is wrong as your server is not fully authoritative and then you have another whole lot of problems, such as players being able to headshot everyone in the server with a press of a button or players setting their own stats (Yes, I’m looking at you Battlefield).

Some of you may be thinking “I don’t see the problem, I’ll just create pure abstract data classes with only the common data between the client and server, with no behavioural functionality. Then subclass in each of the client and server projects”. By all means, you can do this. I just find this to be a pain because you end up maintaining three data structures.

 

Anyway, this post has gone on far longer than I thought it would so wrapping it up now. Sorry for that, I’ll try to keep future posts more concise and maybe provide code snippets to illustrate my points 🙂

If you have any questions or just want to chat netcode, just comment below or fire me a tweet at @Jargon64.

Thanks for reading! 😀

The IOs of Game Netcode #0 – Introduction

I’ve done a lot of coding over the years and learnt a substantial amount, either through reading tutorials, looking at examples, trial and error, reverse engineering, etc. So I’ve come to think I have a wealth of knowledge regarding the subject these days.

For a long time I’ve been thinking that I’d like to give back in some way. So after some thought on what I could share I’ve come to realise that nearly all of the games and other projects I have worked on have networking implemented in some form or other, and for the most part, this has all been developed from the ground up with very little library use (you can take this as good or bad, probably a bit of both). Also, it hasn’t just been the same type of networking. Infact, it ranges all the way from XML serialisation to binary serialisation, and everything in between.

Now, I don’t consider myself a guru on the subject, but I’d like to think that I have an advanced level of knowledge on it. So, I’ve decided to create a series of posts based on my experience on game netcode development and what I think is the best way of implementing game netcode as well as the issues that I ran into that led me to think this way. Hopefully, some of the game devs out there will find what I will be sharing useful and maybe beneficial to their current projects!

I’ve decided to call the series The Ins and Outs of Game Netcode or shortened The IOs of Game Netcode. Now remember, these are my opinions based on my experiences, so don’t take it as fact. I don’t think there is a single right way to do it, but I’ll be sharing what works for me and how I do it.

This introduction post will also serve as a contents page (with links) for the series. So stay tuned 🙂

Contents

Kickstart Banshee!

Some of you may know that we’ve been working closely with Mr Dog Films over the last few months on a transmedia project called Banshee.  We’ve made excellent progress so far, but now the time has come to get Banshee the funding it needs to become the game we want it to be.

As of today, Banshee is now being crowd-funded via Kickstarter with lots of excellent pledge rewards.  It would mean the world to us if you supported us by pledging.

Everything you need to know about Banshee can be found on the Kickstarter campaign site and the Banshee Facebook page.

Thank you!

Wales Games Development Show 2013

Rogue Vector will be at the Wales Games Development Show 2013 again on June 26th this year! We attended last year as Deadworld Studios so we’re looking forward to christening Rogue Vector with another great show!

We’ll be showing off some gameplay footage of our current project, Banshee, as well as the other games we’ve developed over the past few years.

At time of writing, there are only 22 free tickets left so you better be quick!

You can grab a free ticket at http://walesgamesdevelopmentshow2013.eventbrite.co.uk

Hope to see you there!

Deadworld Community Game

Greetings, shall we make a game?

This event is something we decided to put together during the small down time we have between Mechadroids updates to add a little variety to our lives and have some fun. What we are going to do is develop a small game, over a couple weeks, based on the community’s specifications.

So… what do you do? In our forum we have a few choices that you can vote on. The choices are separated out into different areas of a game such as ‘genre’, ‘story’ and ‘graphics’ for instance. Once enough people have voted we will accept the top choices in each area and take two weeks to make a game based off it. We fully expect the game to be a little mad but that’s part of the fun, right?

So, sign up for a forum account if you don’t have one and vote away!

Heads Down Working Hard

This past month has been crazy in terms of development. Our contract artist has produced some excellent art that I’ve been concentrating on getting into Mechadroids. All the main features of the game are now in place so I’m wrapping up the loose ends. After that we’ll be ready for our next alpha release. Seeing how that goes we’ll then release it out onto Google Play (Android’s Market) as a beta!

We should have some exciting news to share in a few weeks time so I’m really looking forward to sharing more news soon! Ok… time for me to get back to work!

Mechadroids Update 0.3.0


What madness is this? Two Mechadroid releases within half a year of each other and four weeks none the less?! That’s right! Here is Mechadroids release 0.3.0!

A few exciting things have happened in the past three weeks. Our community member Inveracity has been very busy creating us a Mechadroid launch video for the previous version 0.2.0 and a full length Mechadroids theme tune! Our community is growing and we’re making good progress.

So, what have we thrown together for this release? A few exciting things. Firstly we have tweaked the balance of the game so try it out and see how it has changed. We have also added a contact system for friends and foes. You can now add players as a friend or foe using a long click anywhere you see a player name. This allows you to track how well you’re doing against your friends and allow you to attack people anywhere you see a name! In addition to this the detailed battle has new messages that are unique to each weapon and shield. It gives you important information regarding your foe’s armour weak points. Next time you fight it might be worth checking them out to get the upper hand in a fight!

Here is the full changelog…

(more…)

Interfacing with UI #4 – Coherent UI

February 5th, 2016

This is part of a series of posts revolving around user interface design and development, the introduction and links to the other posts can be found here. Last I wrote about user interfaces I discussed the new Unity UI system and I wrote about our process of porting from Daikon Forge to it. That was a year and a half ago and a lot has changed since then. To keep things interesting we decided to move from Unity UI (yet another move?!) to Coherent UI and I’ll explain why we did it. Why Move… Again?!... (read more)

@RogueVec: And so it begins! #RebootDevelop

19/04/2018 @ 8:05am UTC

@RogueVec: We'll be at @RebootDevelop this year. We can't wait! If you want to hang out just give us a shout! #RebootDevelop2018 #GameDev

16/04/2018 @ 12:06pm UTC

@SolitudeGame: Fullscreen terminals allow you to hook into your ship's guns for fine control! Moddable gun modules, terminals and UI! https://t.co/B5N01jrA70 #GameDev

8/12/2017 @ 4:58pm UTC

@CWolf: Woo! And, now we have a cross-compiled (nix --> win64) @SolitudeGame server in our build and deploy pipeline #RV #GameDev

28/11/2017 @ 3:39pm UTC

@CWolf: CI love #GameDev #RV

21/11/2017 @ 4:06pm UTC